HISTORY OF THE INTERNATIONAL NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION CONTROL CONSORTIUM – INICC FOUNDATION
Ø INICC, International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium, a philanthropic organization, evolves from itinerant information pro bono work and training that started in the 90’s by Dr. Victor D. Rosenthal (VDR).
Ø In the first instance, the infections that patients acquire when they are cared for by health personnel, being hospitalized, or when they are outpatients attended in clinics or at home, they are called "Hospital Infections", then they are called "Nosocomial Infections" , and are referred to herein as “Health Care Associated Infections (HAI)”.
Ø In 1993, Dr. Víctor Rosenthal joins the group of medical doctors working pro bono in charge of drafting the National Infection Control Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of Argentina (SADI). Meanwhile, HAIs are measured by means of the methodology based on the CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the US. In 1993, when comparing HAI rates with their American counterpart, he notices a difference of 5 to 1 above the American standard.
Ø In 1998, five years after the SADI guidelines were published, he notices that, at the health-care centers where he works as an infectious diseases doctor, Guidelines are not applied: “regulations on their own do not bring about changes in healthcare-workers’ behavior,” he said. From this fact is that the idea of implementing Process Surveillance to monitor compliance with Infection Control Guidelines evolves. On the other hand, healthcare workers claim that infections in patients are caused by risk factors. So, in addition, he implements Outcome Surveillance, which would allow the detection of specific risk factors. Facing the negative resistance directors and managers had towards the applying of this methodology, Dr. Rosenthal initiates the measurement of extra mortality, extra cost and other costs related to the extension of the length of hospital stay. Such was the birth of the concept of Cost-effectiveness of HAI Control, which would now generate the interest of healthcare facilities managers.
Ø Between 1998 and 2000 VDR forms a group of three hospitals in Buenos Aires, which were pioneers in the application of the new methodology: systematic recollection of processes and results epidemiologic vigilance data. That was the origin of the actual international database and, starting from which the possibility of establishing INICC developed standards for limited- resourced countries.
Ø Between 1999 and 2000, there are significant improvements in the first results of the implementation of Outcome and Process Surveillance; that is, compliance with the Guidelines is associated to the reduction of HAIs.
Ø Then this methodology is applied by VDR in the three hospitals with encouraging results, and results are published in peer reviewed journals and presented in scientific meetings.
Ø In 2002, Dr. Rosenthal is invited to give a presentation on this topic in Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Peru and Turkey. In all of these countries, healthcare workers asked to be trained in this methodology, whereas the Health Department of Bogota, Colombia, and the Under Secretary for Innovation and Quality of Mexico require his assistance and counseling.
Ø This is the year in which INICC emerges as an International Philanthropic Network, that provides services pro bono, with the participation of Mexico, the first country to report data from its hospitals and healthcare centers.
Ø In 2002, the cosmopolite aspect of INICC reflects in its structure: the Countries Coordination, in charge of presidents and directors of Scientific Societies of the participant countries and an Expert International Assessors Group, accompany the President, thus forming a real International Scientific Community.
Ø In 2003, training and information activities intensify around the world, in response to increasing requests received as the Infection Control Program is made known. The INICC methodology is disseminated and continues to be made increasingly known worldwide. Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Turkey join INICC.
Ø In 2004, India and Morocco join INICC.
Ø In 2005, the Joint Commission International invites INICC to present data and share their presentation with representatives of IFIC and WHO, two organizations that offer INICC to work in alliance with them to support Infection Control and Surveillance in hospitals of limited-resource countries.
Ø That same year, Dr Rosenthal starts to work as a WHO Infection Control Guidelines reviewer. The Philippines and Croatia join INICC.
Ø In 2006, INICC’s first multicentric study is published in the peer reviewed journal “Annals of Internal Medicine”, placing itself as the world standard for the developing countries. This year the INICC Board is established. Pakistan, Kosovo and Macedonia join INICC.
Ø In 2007, FLIN, Foundation Against Nosocomial Infections, is set up with the aim to support INICC’s scientific activities. Uruguay, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Lebanon, and Cuba join INICC.
Ø In 2008, following its development, China, Panama, Tunisia and Venezuela join INICC.
Ø In 2009, Greece, Lithuania and Vietnam also join this boosting organization.
Ø In 2010 INICC is joined by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Bulgaria, Egypt, Jordan, Malaysia, Poland, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Thailand.
Ø In November 2010 the protocol for the surveillance of surgical site infections is designed and from July 2011 it is implemented together with the surveillance of device-associated infections.
Ø In 2011 Slovakia and Serbia join INICC.
Ø In 2012, INICC is joined by Bolivia, Ecuador, and Romania.
Ø In 2013, INICC launch its online application, called “INICC Surveillance Online System”.
Ø In 2013, INICC is joined by Guatemala, Mongolia and Uruguay.
Ø In 2014, INICC is joined by Cyprus, Indonesia, Kuwait, Libya, Nepal, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Russia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Ø In 2015, INICC is joined by more hospitals from Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Colombia, Turkey, and India.
Ø In 2016, INICC is joined by Bahrain, and Papua New Guinea.
Ø In 2017, INICC is joined by Paraguay, and more centers from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Mongolia, Poland and Philippines.
Ø In 2018 were published following five (5) scientific researches: (1) Al-Mousa HH, Omar AA, Rosenthal VD, Salama MF, Aly NY, El-Dossoky Noweir M, Rebello FM, Narciso DM, Sayed AF, Kurian A, George SM, Mohamed AM, Ramapurath RJ, Varghese ST, Orellano PW. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units of two hospitals in Kuwait. J Infect Prev. 2018 Jul;19(4):168-176.; (2) Al-Abdely HM, Khidir Mohammed Y, Rosenthal VD, Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC)'s multidimensional approach on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units in 22 hospitals of 14 cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2018 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-684. ; (3) Viet Hung N, Hang PT, Rosenthal VD, Multicenter Study of Device-Associated Infection Rates, Bacterial Resistance, Length of Stay, and Mortality in Intensive Care Units of 2 Cities of Vietnam: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Findings. J Patient Saf. 2018 Jun 4.; (4) Rosenthal VD, Desse J, Maurizi DM,. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC)'s Multidimensional Approach on Rates of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection in 14 Intensive Care Units in 11 Hospitals of 5 Cities in Argentina. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018 Apr;39(4):445-451.; (5) Rosenthal VD, Desse J, Maurizi DM, Chaparro GJ, Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium's multidimensional approach on rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia in 14 intensive care units in 11 hospitals of 5 cities within Argentina. Am J Infect Control. 2018 Jun;46(6):674-679.
Ø In 2019 INICC received the Award for the best scientific research at APIC meeting in Philadelphia, USA;
Ø In 2019 were published two (2) scientific researches : (1) Lutwick L, Al-Maani AS, Mehtar S, Memish Z, Rosenthal VD, Managing and preventing vascular catheter infections: A position paper of the international society for infectious diseases. Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Jul;84:22-29.; (2) Miranda-Novales MG, Sobreyra-Oropeza M, Rosenthal VD, Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach During 3 Years in 6 Hospitals in 3 Mexican Cities. J Patient Saf. 2019 Mar;15(1):49-54.
Ø In 2020 were published following ten (10) scientific researches: (1) Doll M, Marra AR, Apisarnthanarak A, Al-Maani AS, Abbas S, Rosenthal VD. Prevention of Clostridioides difficile in hospitals: A position paper of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 26:S1201-9712(20)32243-8.; (2) Duszynska W, Rosenthal VD. Device associated -health care associated infections monitoring, prevention and cost assessment at intensive care unit of University Hospital in Poland (2015-2017). BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 16;20(1):761.; (3) Mehtar S, Wanyoro A, Ogunsola F, Ameh EA, Nthumba P, Kilpatrick C, Revathi G, Antoniadou A, Giamarelou H, Apisarnthanarak A, Ramatowski JW, Rosenthal VD, Implementation of surgical site infection surveillance in low- and middle-income countries: A position statement for the International Society for Infectious Diseases. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov;100:123-131.; (4) Rosenthal VD, Bat-Erdene I, Gupta D, Six-year study on peripheral venous catheter-associated BSI rates in 262 ICUs in eight countries of South-East Asia: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings. J Vasc Access. 2020 May 14:1129729820917259.; (5) Rosenthal VD, Belkebir S, Zand F, Six-year multicenter study on short-term peripheral venous catheters-related bloodstream infection rates in 246 intensive units of 83 hospitals in 52 cities of 14 countries of Middle East: Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates-International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings. J Infect Public Health. 2020 Aug;13(8):1134-1141.; (6) Rosenthal VD, Bat-Erdene I, Gupta D, Belkebir S,. Six-year multicenter study on short-term peripheral venous catheters-related bloodstream infection rates in 727 intensive care units of 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific Regions: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 May;41(5):553-563.; (7) Rosenthal VD, Gupta D, Rajhans P,. Six-year multicenter study on short-term peripheral venous catheters-related bloodstream infection rates in 204 intensive care units of 57 hospitals in 19 cities of India: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) findings. Am J Infect Control. 2020 Sep;48(9):1001-1008.; (8) Rosenthal VD. Clinical impact of needle-free connector design: A systematic review of literature. J Vasc Access. 2020 Nov;21(6):847-853.; (9) Alkhawaja S, Saeed NK, Rosenthal VD, Abdul-Aziz S, Alsayegh A, Humood ZM, Ali KM, Swar S, Magray TAS. Impact of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium's multidimensional approach on central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in Bahrain. J Vasc Access. 2020 Jul;21(4):481-489.; (10) Rosenthal VD, Bat-Erdene I, Gupta D, Belkebir S, Rajhans P, International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) report, data summary of 45 countries for 2012-2017: Device-associated module. Am J Infect Control. 2020 Apr;48(4):423-432.; (11) Rosenthal VD. Impact of needle-free connectors compared with 3-way stopcocks on catheter-related bloodstream infection rates: A meta-analysis. Am J Infect Control. 2020 Mar;48(3):281-284.
Ø At present, 2000 investigators participate actively in INICC, reporting their data from 460 healthcare centers in 306 cities of 54 countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Middle East. INICC continue providing service pro bono, to face the challenge of HAIs worldwide.